What is Malware? Maybe so far you have not carelessly said Malware on each occasion. But with the frequency with which he hears the word, we don’t understand malware and its explanation.
Maybe your mind is not dangerous thinking of malware, computer viruses that can attack computers or laptops. The explanation can be correct, and it can also be wrong. Therefore you will deepen again, and we will give examples for you to know what malware means.
First, you will discuss the definition of malware concerning its meaning. Malware stands for Malicious Software which is a program developed to reduce and damage the many existing computer systems. The computer or laptop that you have can save Malware via e-mail, download jobs, or can also have many approved programs.
Danger Malware is a program that can release data and information that can damage your broken computer system. Various types of malware include viruses, worms, rootkits, spyware, adware, Trojan horses, and many other types of applications that we will carry.
Not only limited to programs, but malware can also take the form of code/script. So, many programs and scripts that are suspected of being able to damage the computer system and a lot of critical information are in it.
The site itself can be infected with malware, which can happen because you can access many of the sites’ themes in random locations. Because each of the data and information that you have can be broken, even the website server can go down due to the Malware.
After the description and definition of the definition of malware above, we will now enter to talk about the techniques of working malware to be able to damage the computer system that you have.
Malware can enter the computer system contained through various software that you have installed or can also pass data transmission from gadgets that have been exposed to the virus.
Malware that has been entered into the computer system must immediately be dealt with quickly. As a precautionary step, you can install an antivirus application that has quality and can prevent malware data from entering.
Next, you will enter on who is targeted by this malware. Targeting malware is not a few victims, malware can be used to spy on someone, steal a lot of individual data that belongs to others, damage security programs, and still not a few more. Whatever the target of malware, this program can harm many parties infiltrated by Malware.
But in general, malware is often created with destinations destroying a software and operating system through unknown code/script. So the party that makes the malware inserts malware is hidden by the party who created it.
From the initial understanding, maybe not a few of you think that malware and viruses are the same, actually not at all.
The correct definition is that malware has meaning as a collection name which contains many risky programs for existing computer systems while viruses are part of Malware.
So with this information, hopefully, you will not be mistaken about what malware is or what viruses are.
The explanation above, we feel that it is quite clear to explain to you what is meant by Malware. Now you will go into more in-depth reviews about the many types of malware that can damage your computer system.
The first type of Malware is a virus that we have peeled briefly above. In a sense, the virus is a malware that has skills in manipulating data, infecting, damaging and processing existing programs.
Not only there, but a virus can also replicate itself with the technique of inserting a copy program and then becoming an element of a different program on the computer.
How the virus works and spreads through the executable file like .exe, .com, .vbs. Through this technique, the virus will be active after the user starts running a program that has been infected before. So this type of infection will not appear if the program does not run.
However, not all viruses have such work techniques. Some types of infections have more modern skills in attacking a computer. The way they will attack your computer through intermediary e-mail, USB, file sharing, and computer networks.
After the virus enters your computer system, they will nest in some points including the boot sector and document files.
There are many types of viruses that have the Macro name viruses which are a type of infection that is developed in soft devices such as various word processing software. Secondly, there is a retrovirus that can turn off the antivirus that you install on the computer. And the last one is the HLL Virus that was created with programming languages like C ++, Delphi, Basic, AND Visual Basic.
The next type of malware is a worm. An infection is a program that can replicate itself and work on the spread of computer networks through open security holes.
Worms have characteristics that are almost the same as Viruses, and the difference lies in the virus still depends on a program while the infection does not. An epidemic is a program that stands alone and does not rely on an application such as a virus to become a nest of its spread.
Even worms can infect and damage many files in a computer system better compared with viruses. So that with this ability worms are not often associated with changes in an infection.
The workings of the worm are unique because the spread does not need any interference from other people. Infections spread by utilizing existing networks.
The way the worm will utilize the many network security loopholes revealed in the operating system. After entering the system, the devil will start working on transfer files and so much data contained in the order. Finally, the system allows worms to work on infections on a large number of data independently.
One system that has been infected then the worm will begin to spread into more extensive networks. Worms can work on infections that have many interconnected networks so that there will be fewer systems that can become infected.
If the worm has infected the network then the data you have can be stolen, access to the antivirus cannot be done, the peace feature in the system will die, the infected system will not be useful, drain the available bandwidth. Not just that, with the ability to multiply quickly, can result in computer memories running out. After that, your computer can become slow and crash.
Furthermore, there are those that have the name of a Trojan horse or commonly called a trojan. Trojans are computer programs that can not be detected and can manipulate like an excellent program to use they are not at all. Trojans are often used to get information and control it.
The distinctive feature of Trojans is that they can be controlled through other computers, trojans can manipulate to the point that as if a program is excellent and legal, Trojans cannot replicate themselves but spread via e-mail and download files from the internet.
The way the Trojan works is by infecting the system when all users do software downloads from unreliable sources on the internet. The application has a trojan code that can allow different people to damage your computer system.
The characteristics of trojans that can disguise and appear to be good programs make not a few people deceived. Finally, after the program is run the computer that has been infected can be freely controlled by different versions of the client.
Keylogger is a program that has the purpose of working on recording all activities when you reduce buttons on the keyboard.
Keyloggers can have uses depending on who will use it. For example, if properly utilized, the keylogger can monitor employee work activities, monitor student activities in learning. But if it is used for a wrong destination, a keylogger can be misused to kidnap password and PIN data that can be detrimental.
How this keylogger works is where one time the keylogger will first record all activities through the keyboard. Then the results of the recording will be saved to the list or log file.
Note that saved keylogger is very modern so that all users can understand similarly what is typed on the computer. Not only there, but the keylogger can also send recordings via the attacker’s email regularly.
The danger is that the risk of scaring the keylogger is the sophisticated encryption that a website has, all attackers can quickly collect the password.
The next type of Malware is Adware which is an advertising application that is secretly inserted by the attacker. Adware has the skill to rotate and show ads automatically and is unknown to the user. Adware is not uncommon in the form of pop up advertisements found on a site.
Next is the Dialer which is a program developed to show telephone connections to the internet. Computers that have been infected by a dialer can force to connect to the internet even if they are not doing internet activities.
Wabbit is a program that has characteristics similar to worms, but Wabbit does not need a connection to the network because it can work through a local network system. The danger that can be implemented Wabbit is the ability to multiply themselves to make the hard drive loaded, and the computer will become slow and hang.
BOTS is a robot that can interact with existing network services. The use of BOTS can have good and bad consequences depending on the person who developed it. If it is designed for the bad, BOTS can work like a worm that can do self-replication and then work on infections on a computer. Just contrary to the devil, BOOTS requires an order from the developer to act.
The Hijacker browser is a malware that can replace and add benefits from the Internet Explorer browser. So that you can show certain websites when you use Internet Explorer.
This one malware will most disturb your privacy because Spyware can spy on computer users and then deliver information to other parties. The information contained can be observed confidentially by different people and unknown to the victim.
This way of working backdoor where previously this malware entered the system and accessed so many files with the technique of violating security formalities.
Backdoor itself has two groups, one which is similar to a trojan where malware is manually entered into a program and when installed the attack begins.
The second is similar to a worm where Malware is run as a unit of the boot process.
The consequences that can occur if a Backdoor infects your computer is chaos then crossing networks and working on brute force with the aim of kidnapping the password that you have.
First explanation regarding exploits which is an application that has the skills to attack security gaps. Exploits are often used by a researcher to show that a system has a difference.
The gap found was announced for analysis to the producers to be able to be corrected or not to minimize the difference observed.
Nevertheless, exploits are often misused by a handful of people to attack the peace gap. Especially if you dealing with people money. Many of Online Gaming or Casino companies or judi bola terpercaya di Indonesia aware of this and build a robust security to secure transaction and registration member.
Then there is a Rootkit that is slightly opposite to exploit, where rootkits do not attack the system directly. Rootkits are inserted into a computer after the computer can be taken over by the attacker. The goal is so that they can erase traces of the attack.
Not infrequently the Rootkit contains a Backdoor malware, to the point that attackers can re-attack computer systems in other times.
Rootkits are difficult to detect, and you can use the following software to understand Rootkits or not. The software includes RKHunter, Rootkit Detector Kit, or ChRootkit.
Various types of Malware above can infect your computer through so many different ways. Starting from entering through the existence of a relationship in an exchange of data, passing through a computer network, entering through an exchange of storage, entering through an attachment in an email, and so on.
When malware has infected a computer, many impacts can be caused. This is mostly dependent on the type and destination of the spread of the malware. If malware attacks only the use of jokes, the impact will not be too problematic compared to malware that has the purpose of damaging a system.
If the malware has attacked so many losses, it might have happened to the attack. Such as loss of data in a computer, theft of important documentation or data, and so on.
Considering the danger of an attack carried out by malware, it makes you deserve to pay attention to every single one that can happen with caution when using your computer.
This article is specifically devoted to the questions that enter our editor, which is what is the difference between HTTP and HTTPS and which sites need HTTPS? Is the online store included? to answer it I will first state a brief definition of the two protocols.
HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol) is a network protocol layer of software that is used for distributed, collaborative information systems, and uses hypermedia. or simply HTTP is the basic rule or protocol that manages the communication between the client and server. client is the user who requests and receives information while the server is the one who submits the information.
HTTPS (Hypertext transfer protocol) is a safe conversion from HTTP, the task is exactly the same but in the exchange of https data using authentication and encrypted communication. HTTPS was developed by Netscape Communications Corp.
There are a number of major differences between HTTP and HTTPS, namely
1. How it works
A very striking difference is the method of work in data expeditions. HTTP does not surrender security in communication between client and server while HTTPS adds more security where clients and servers can communicate safely.
in securing data between client and server, the communication of data delivered will be encrypted. the encryption is in the SSL (Secure) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) encrypted Socket Layer to the point that even if the data is stolen, the data cannot be read because it is encrypted.
2. Port used
another very basic difference is HTTP default port is 80 and HTTPS use is 443
3. Benefits of HTTPS
When witnessed from its usefulness as long as the site does not deliver urgent data that can harm you if the data is misused then you don’t need it too much. because like the description above https is a safe version of http.
then do online stores need to use https? yes !, because your client credential data is very urgent. and can be misused by irresponsible people if the data is successfully stolen. in addition you can see the benefits of https that I have explained
But in the growth of the internet at this time, you as a site owner must immediately use https. a number of large companies like apple and chrome encourage the use of https. even Google has announced that it will show insecure warnings on sites that are still using HTTP.
in the world of network security, the two terms above are not strange and strange business. Even these two collections do not affect the network security situation a little, to the extent that some people mention them as “controllers” of cyber security. However, it turns out that not a few of us can know the meaning, characteristics, and differences of the two terms above.
Actually Hackers and Crackers are two terms that have the most different meaning. But by a lot of people, these two groups that play a very urgent role in the peace of cyberspace are not infrequently misinterpreted to the point that they are the same and harmful. If we try to examine and explore the location of the difference between Hackers and Crackers, it will be seen that they have a very opposite goal in working on the action. Therefore, so that the definition of the two terms is not gradual, let us try to understand the meaning and differences of the two terms.
Isit is sophisticated and maybe not too difficult to remember by those of us who just heard it one time. This term is actually a term in English. But compared to the Indonesian term, it turns out this term is better known by the public. In Indonesian terms, hackers are called hackers. Hackers can be interpreted as a person or group of people who are interested in understanding in depth the workings of a system, hardware, or computer network, and can experiment with it to the point that it can obtain better techniques for saving systems and networks.
In general, Hackers have the following characteristics:
Not like the assumptions of many people, true hackers who obey the code of ethics Hackers will seek as far as possible to avoid actions to harm different people for personal gain. However, it is undeniable that not a few of these computer experience who, besides adhering to the code of ethics, sometimes try to use their abilities to do things that are negative and can harm others.
Along with the rapid development of technology, being a hacker is something special and becomes the most extraordinary dream for some people with a guarantee that they will find seats in controlling the system and network security. But it turned out to be a hacker that bahwasannya is not something easy. And after all Hackers are the art of IT people.
In the absence of hackers, the world of technology will feel false by merely following the path that is already there and has been determined, there are absolutely no different constraints and colors. The virtual world will not feel so broad if I and you always feel that there will not be different people who understand what I am and you are doing in front of the monitor screen. Then how will we become hackers if we can only use and follow what is already there? “Therefore, continue to be creative, conquer your world, and find your new world out there, then you will be able to control your world. Never regret if you were never known by the world, because you are the one who should recognize your world to pursue your new world.
Yes, that’s how Hackers are. It is not easy to be a hacker, but should we write that being a hacker is difficult when we have never attempted to do so. In addition to needing sincerity to become a hacker, a true hacker must obey the rules of the game and hacker ethics.
Here are 6 hackers’ ethics written by Steven Levy in his book “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution” and then quoted by Onno W. Purbo:
While the general reflection about the rules of the game Hackers are as follows suitable with what was written by Onno W. Purbo derived from the information Scorpio:
Some people have grouped hackers into two groups that have different properties, the two collections are:
This group belongs to hackers who are full of ethics and rules of playing hackers. They did not collect the benefits of their actions, and really wanted to protect the system from the holes of peace and damage caused by irresponsible people. And this is the real format of Hackers.
This group is no different from those who hold positions as Crackers that we will later discuss. They forget the boundaries in the Hacker code of ethics and work on technological innovations regardless of ethics that should be obeyed. Maybe they have the same ability as ethical obedient hackers, but they choose to use their ability to do things that are harmful.
The following groups created the image of Hackers to be bad. They are in no way contrary to the Black Hat Hackers that we have peeled before. It can be said that actually Black Hat Hackers are just different names from Cracker. They use their skills to gain access to computers of different people without the system being known, and then struggle to get confidential data belonging to victims. They actually even have the same skills in the field of systems and computer networks may even get more, but they cannot use it in accordance with the determined ethical values.
However, it may be said that they are very helpful and play an urgent role in the growth of information and communication technology. Without them, it’s hard to realize that this virtual world is not safe. They are also experienced in creating viruses, worms, trojans, and are good at installing backdoor. Without them, the world would not need an antivirus, and all hackers might not be too needed to analyze security. However, around there are still peace holes that Cracker can still pass, it is too difficult to eliminate them from the security system and network world.
However, the urge to do cracking is indeed too difficult to eliminate when the tranquility hole and tempting dividends are in sight, just typing in a lot of code and the benefits can be obtained. Therefore, before feeling truly convinced that it will not violate the ethics of hackers, it should never attempt to become a hacker, because the business will only bring you to cracking acts that harm others.
As advised by Onno W. Purbo that network security techniques are no different from a knife – we can use them for things that are ugly and destructive; but it can also be used for good things to the point that it is beneficial to many people. Choose something that is beneficial to the public, our name will be remembered forever, not to mention if the rizki and reward will be calculated through the good deeds you do with the knowledge we have.
Maybe if you want to be a true hacker, then start from everyday life. Have exclusive characteristics that must be possessed by Hackers, and try to realize Hacker ethics in everyday life. Because basically Hackers are people who are anti-authority, then you also have to strive to be more creative in making things that are contrary and can give up benefits, even though there are times when we need to follow what is already there.
But if you don’t feel like becoming a hacker, then you know that hackers aren’t as bad as we imagine. Learn to call those who do not obey Hacker’s ethics in working on tracing into different computer systems as Cracker (Black Hat Hackers). And it should never offend those who penetrate other people’s accounts for their own sake as Hacker (White Hat Hackers). And you should never ignore other people giving wrong understanding of the two terms that we have now understood.
Building an efficient network infrastructure is certainly a necessity so that the performance of your system becomes the most reliable in handing service access to authorized users for all existing network resources. Especially in gaming business, sophisticated Memory and VGA is a must to provide the best experience such as graphic and minimum lagging. Not just for game like Fps or MMORPG, but board game or casino game like in the https://judisakti.org now also require such requirement to play their graphic.
It is better to clean up and design LAN network infrastructure first as efficiently as possible before creating a network connection to Cloud WAN that connects all remote sites into your corporate network. This does not mean you do not need to create a WAN design into your network design until the entire local network location of your network is formed, but you concentrate first until you can ensure that your LAN network connection system is efficient before creating a connection to the WAN.
There will be very few activities that will be completed in this network connection and depending on how large your network design scale is. Make a network connection in a company where the office consists of a number of remote sites even up to the geography boundary, in contrast to a network connection in a local location network that connects a number of buildings in a company area or maybe just in a small office room. You must have completed your network design including computer systems that will use this network infrastructure system. This network connection work is complicated depending on how large your network is, especially if you have to design a backup in case network, a disaster occurs or anticipate problems in the network.
It is assumed that you have created your network design and some of your site diagrams like the picture below, how do you make a network connection according to this site diagram?
The server room where a number of your servers are located in the HRD building. there are 80 users in this building. I say a number of servers – why aren’t all servers in one room and in the same building? This concerns the security of security best practice standards regarding placement servers (next article). There are still two more buildings that must be connected in a network connection:
The total users in this network are 200 (80 in the HRD + 80 building in Mining + 40 in the Workshop), and do not include the need for a permanent IP address for a number of servers; printer; Wireless Access Point; switch; and even VoIP. You can use a private IP network say 192.168.100.0/24 (254 IP addres available) for all users and devices in this network. For that you can use 4 24-port switches on the cascade in both mining buildings and HRDs with the standard 100BaseT Ethernet. While in the workshop there were quite a few switches 24 ports on the cascade. With the exception of the server room you need a Gigabit 12 port switch if all your servers are equipped with Gigabit Ethernet, for the fastest data transfer and it will be very useful if you use a single Autoloader backup device to backup all data servers; exchange and your database, which is routinely carried out at night.
Then how about the network connection between the HRD building and the Workshop? Because the location of this Workshop is under a valley with a distance of more than 300 meters, it is impossible for you to use a cable connection. Then you can use Wireless technology that connects two or more points of the access point via radio frequencies 2.4 GigaHz. You can get this kind of product on the Cisco Aironet sample market. You can build two simple towers to place the antenna at the top of the tower from the two access point antennas can watch each other without obstruction. This Wireless Device can transmit data up to 58 Mbps; not bad for the link between these buildings using air transmission media. Please read the next article about wireless local location network.
Now how do you connect the network connection between buildings in Mining and at HRD that is 70 meters away? This will depend on the challenges you face, if you have to conclude for a unique underground cable then use the UTP Cat 6 outdoor LAN cable which is exclusively designed for outdoor use and water resistance and gigabit support speed. However, for security arguments and maintenance facilities, enter this UTP cable with a fairly large diameter into an iron pipe or the like and if you need to make special drainage such as water drainage.
Why not just use wireless networks between these two buildings like between HRDs and workshops? Indeed, with the most practical wireless network, you don’t need to bother 2 underground cables, but you know that wireless speeds up to 450 Mbps are currently very high (802.11n standards with three spatial data streams) in theory. – You will not be able to achieve this speed), while between the two buildings you need a reliable connection with gigabit speed as a two-building backbone in redundancy (with STP enabled).
Even in the Mining office there are a number of data servers and mining software, the largest of which are data, especially geological data and must be backed up centrally in the HRD building. Not to mention the challenge of blackspot if there is a problem with your wireless, or the number of obstacles to radio frequency interference. While the use of the workshop building is a problem requiring us to use a wireless radio network because the building must go through the valley and not allow unique cables through the forest, even though it is only 300 meters away, and there is no critical system that must be given. The most reliable wireless network if both tower antennas can watch each other (LOS – line of sight). And again, the workshop only requires connections for computer clients.
Note: 5th generation wifi technology is available now with speeds of up to 1,300Mbps, 802.11ac. See Netgear R6300 Wifi 5g router.
To complete this network connection, you still need to think about network configuration and network setup for all devices in this network connection such as IP addresses to all PC clients; Permanent IP for server use; switch; printer and so on.
What’s next? What you need to consider is that documentation of all of these activities is classified as a disaster recovery plan – a backup plan – plan B from being a disaster. After the network connection problem is resolved and can be connected properly, the next step is to open Chrome and access the Online Poker site.
Computer network problems can cause network software problems and disruptions to business continuity. The scale of this disturbance can vary depending on the source of the disturbance and the consequences it has on your infrastructure network. Network problems can cause downtime (how come the language …?) And this downtime can vary depending on how well you plan planning contingencies. Good management of your network system files can help you minimize downtime and make it easier for you to troubleshoot your network problems.
There are not a few types of network problems that can cause disruption to a computer, disruption of local networks, to disruptions to the global network of business connections in your corporate.
This is a common network problem that you encounter with the impact of network cable breakdowns that can affect the performance of a computer on the network because of the breakup of your patch cable because it was bitten by a mouse; dominant network problems in one building block because the cable breaks between switches (uplink cable); or even dominant in the majority of computers in your LAN network due to failure of backbone cable.
The dominant network problem on a computer may not be a big problem except that of the general’s computer or your director. But the dominant network problems in your LAN network in bulk or even globally dominant in your corporate business can create a cold sweat. In a large-scale network infrastructure system, a redundancy system must be implemented. So that if a failure occurs in one network path it will not result in network failure in long periods.
In a residential multi switch network, the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) must be enabled and tuned manually. STP is a service that allows the switch-2 network and bridge-2 of your LAN to be connected to each other in a redundant manner with a mechanism that can prevent bridging loops. The bridging loop is a data packet that is circling in the network looking for addresses to exhaustion and the end of koid. This bridging loop can cause your network traffic to crash or be called broadcast storm.
The scale of the disruption of the impact of network device failures can also vary, from merely a computer because of the failure of the NIC – LAN card; number of computers due to switch failure; or even wide-scale causes of failure on central switches that connect server networks. For lan card failures between computers it can be replaced with your backup network card.
So what if the network failure impacts damage to the switch? Your design regarding network redundancy will be very helpful in securing your network failure. The need for load balancing and redundancy must be assessed for every need according to the use of redundancy links; router device; switches and multi-homed hosts that have critical properties. The purpose of this redundancy system is to ensure the availability of services where there is no single point of failure.
Let’s look at the picture above regarding the system of redundancy.
Switch redundancy; If a problem occurs due to a failure on switch A, Switch B can still be useful for supplying links to the server and also to the two channel switches and links to the WAN. This type of network problem will not affect the server down system.
Router redundancy will create a WAN link backup when problems occur between routers. For example, between routers that connect your frame relay network to other offices, there are still backup links on the other router.
Link redundancy – will backup the link if there is a network problem with the link being disconnected to the server or to the switch.
We can apply this redundancy system to the previous scenario model that connects both the Mining and HR offices with unique two underground Cat5e UTP cables as redundancy links. Make sure that both of these redundancy cables are not connected to the same switch, because if there is a failure on the switch it will be useless.
For internet link redundancy, the router is actually already in the market a little with two or more WAN ports to the point that it doesn’t need two routers. This type of router is often for small medium offices where two WAN ports can failover – failback. So if the main link fails, it will failover to the backup link. Or you can also create two links load balancing, let’s say FVS336G Dual Wan Gigabit SSL VPN Firewall.
Although system failure is not the impact of network infrastructure failure, your users will still call you with the following questions: “Hello Agus … is there a network problem? I can’t access my email … or something like this “I can’t access the internet … or even a question from a radio operator” Hello Agus … how come I can’t access the folder President Director … why is that? ”
System failure can be caused by a problem with your DHCP server so that clients do not accept an IP address. Or it could be because there is a problem with your Directory Services system so that clients cannot log on to the network. Or it could be because there is a problem with registering names in your DNS system.
This type is also a network problem that is not due to physical network infrastructure failure, but your network system will be flooded with traffic from the influence of viruses that attack the system server and infect all computers in your network. The performance of your network system will be the slowest even to say collapsed. What you can do with this virus attack is to implement best practice security policy, your system defense must be very immune.
All kinds of network problems, you as a network and system administrator must be able to solve the problem. It doesn’t matter whether the problem is the failure of your network device; or your computer system problems; or an intruder that attacks your system infrastructure system. A good redundancy network design and a good management system is an obligation on a network scale that has a broad and complex nature.
SSL is short for Secure Socket Layer which is a transport layer protocol that is used in a secure internet connection. If you want a communication connection via the internet with a secure technique, then use an SSL connection.
SSL offers three levels of security, namely:
The first two you can get from your ISP, contact your ISP to convince him.
SSL operates between the Application and Transport layers in the OSI model. SSL does not work transparently automatically, because only if the application protocols are explicitly implemented.
SSL uses public-key encryption for the purpose of authentication and symmetric key encryption to encrypt the information sent. For public SSL encryption keys, use the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption algorithm, so it depends on the implementation of the supported infrastructure public key (PKI). Message integrity is ensured by an integrity checking mechanism technique called a message authentication code (MAC).
An SSL session starts when an SSL-enabled client requests a connection with a server with SSL-enabled over TCP port 443, the SSL port. This will initiate an SSL connection between the client and server. All sites that use SSL have a URL with the HTTPS prefix. The server then sends the digital certificate and public key to the client.
The client server then negotiates which level of encryption can be received which is often 40-bit, 56-bit, or 128-bit and above. The client then generates a secret session key which is then encrypted using the public key from the server to send it to the server. The server then decodes the secret session key using the private key. From this point onwards, the secret key cryptography is imposed and then the session key is used to encrypt all data exchanges between the client and the server, leaving a secure private communication.
SSL is certainly not free from problems. All web transactions with SSL will increase processing overhead on the server. Sometimes it is double the process overhead compared to using a secure SSL connection. With the same machine hardware, the processing load level using SSL will be the heaviest compared to without SSL.
Besides that, SSL is difficult to implement in e-commuters that use web server farms and server load balancers. This view of SSL is designed so that the client uses the same IP address around the session.
To overcome this problem, often used exclusive hardware called SSL Accelerators to collect processing fees and cache sessions for different servers to increase performance.
A network is a collection of desktop or laptop computers and other network devices such as printers that are connected together with the main destination is to communicate with each other and exchange data with each other. The core of computer networks is sharing and allowing your computer to connect to the internet, communicate with each other, and share resources like files and printers.
With the network, you will get a lot of flexibility in your work and provide time together with computers and electronic equipment. With a computer network you can:
There are so many benefits with the network, you can share storage and access files on other computers through the network that is in your home or commonly called a LAN (local location network) network. It doesn’t matter where you save the file, you can always access it, of course with certain restrictions. And if you use share storage, you don’t need to have to turn on your computer so that other computers can access it. You can also save your files on different computers / storage on the Internet or commonly called WAN (wide location network).
There are not a few types of networks according to the size and proximity. And almost everything can be categorized into two basic collections namely local location network (LAN) and wide location network (WAN).
A LAN is a network of a set of computers, printers, or other network equipment that is connected to one another in different ways as in a home, office, or school and campus. This allows users who are connected to the network to share files, printers, or storage together. Whether this network consists of only two computers or in the largest scale, the main destination is so that each user can share information quickly and easily. So often a LAN is limited to a distance in one building or location that can communicate with each other quickly.
While a WAN is a group of computer networks on a large scale across geographic boundaries, such as between cities or between countries. A simple example of a WAN network is the Internet where all computers in all worlds can be interrelated and communicate (of course with certain limitations). A router is needed to communicate with each other between your personal LAN network and the WAN network using a common network protocol called TCP / IP.
The picture above indicates a concept diagram of a network where a LAN network is connected to a WAN (internet) network using a router.
There are two main types of networks:
It is most common for networks home or office to use a combination of both: cable and wireless.
Wired (cable) networks have been around for decades. Wired network technology that is now very popular is Ethernet networks. Data cables, commonly referred to as Ethernet network cables (CAT5), are used to connect computers and other network equipment that make up the network. A wired network is very good if you need a large amount of data transfer with the highest speed and reliable, just call it for gaming and entertainment media like HD (high definition) video.
The advantages of a wired network are the following:
Wireless networks do not use cables to connect to each other. however they will use radio waves like your cellular telephone. The main advantage of wireless networking is that it is mobile (mobile) and free from a cable or fixed connection limitation. The advantages of wireless networks are the following:
With wireless networks you can use your computer anywhere in your home or office, even in the park or in your gazebo. You can check email and browsing or online or even you can print wirelessly from other rooms. we don’t need to drill holes to install Ethernet network cables to break down walls. You can connect to a wireless network. Outside the house you can connect with public hotspot networks such as cafes, airports, hotels, campuses etc. This is very suitable for those who often travel.
Even now there is a widespread cellular network (3G / 4G network) that can be accessed through certain cellular phones, and you can also share one 3G connection account with a number of people using a 3G modem and 3G router, call it DIR-450/451 from D-Link or Cradlepoint CTR-500.
The heart of a home network is a router. Even though there are two types of routers that encapsulate wired and wireless, a wireless router can do everything like what can be done on a wired router, and give up more flexibility and even the same price. Call it the E-Series wireless router from Linksys, or call it Netgear WNDR37AV for gaming and video.
Almost all wireless routers are equipped with at least 4 Ethernet ports, both Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet. With a laptop you can roaming all over your house without wires, or the PC is located next to the router can use wired connections for high reliable speeds. For convenience and wireless networking facilities is the answer.
The maximum performance of a wireless is obtained from the IEEE 802.11 standard specification. actual performance can vary, including lower wireless network capacity, data rate throughput, coverage and range. Performance can depend on not a few factors, situations and variables, classified as distance from the access point (base station), network traffic volume, construction and building materials, operating system used, combined or used wireless products, interference and other situations.
Here are some types of 802.11 wireless standards
The 802.11a wireless standard operates at a frequency of 5 GHz which is not quite booming compared to a 2.4 GHz freq where telephone and microwave can cause interference. Even though the speed is up to 54 Mbps, the range is only 25 meters. Wireless A is not compatible with wireless B / G and N because it operates on a different frequency.
Almost the same as wireless B, but the speed can be up to 5 times up to 54 Mbps. You can mix wireless B and G, but you will lose fast performance from wireless G.
Wireless 802.11n is the latest and very fast wireless generation of up to 300 Mbps and even up to 450 Mbps (for example in TEW-691GR from Trendnet). It is appointed with Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO. Wireless N is very suitable for applications that are hungry for bandwidth like streaming HD video, voice and music.
Wireless AC is the fifth generation of WiFi technology that can penetrate speeds in theory to 1300Mbps at 5GHz bands. 802.11ac is the latest wifi technology that has begun to be adopted for wireless routers, wireless adapters or wireless bridges with aggregate speeds of up to 1750Mbps. Call it Netgear with R6300 wireless ac router, Linksys with EA6500 ac router and not a few more.
Dual-band routers work on both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequencies. Some wireless routers working between bands only or a number also work together in both bands. With dual-band, it will minimize interference and leave more bandwidth for software such as video streaming.
Here are the requirements that you need to build an internet network at home or in an office.
The router is the heart of your home network and it is a device that forwards all traffic to and from the internet and the opposite in your network. With the router you can also share an internet connection from your ISP to a number of computers on the network. Routers are also useful as a security layer from the threat of internet security.
High speed internet service connection (Cable or ADSL)
You can buy a high speed internet service from your ISP (internet service provider) for example from Telkom Speedy service. we can also create an Internet network using Cellular services. Of course using a router that is contradictory, say MEBR3500 from Netgear or MBR1200 from Cradlepoint. Common high-speed internet services are referred to as broadband internet to separate with dial-up.
Modems are useful for connecting broadband internet services to your computer so you can surf the internet and access your email. Depending on your broadband Internet service, either Cable or ADSL, you must adjust the modem. often the ISP spends a modem when you sign an internet service agreement at your home. A gateway router is an integrated device that includes the modem and router if DGND3300 from Netgear.
Network adapters allow your computer to be connected to a network. if your computer already has an adapter in it you don’t need to buy it again. There are not a few types of adapters depending on the computer you are using.
For desktop computers:
For Laptops you can use:
To find maximum performance, you must compare the adapters and routers that you use. For example, the wireless router that you use is from the dual-band 802.11n standard (for example Linksys WRT610N or DIR-855 D-Link), then you also have to use an adapter with the same wireless standard that is a dual-band wireless N call it WUSB600N from Linksys or TEW-644 USB dual-band adapter.
The most vital DHCP service in a computer network, the skills to do DHCP troubleshooting are equally important for network administrators
In a computer network infrastructure in an organization, among the important components of the support is the DHCP server. For that, it is very urgent for network administrators to be able to troubleshoot the DHCP server against any format of the problem related to the DHCP server, both the problems that arise due to configuration errors and DHCP installation, to the small problems that affect a computer that cannot receive an IP address from This DHCP server.
One indication of failure of a DHCP is if a computer / client loses connection to the network resource-2 or if a client computer cannot get a connection to the network one time. Our choice is to make sure whether this comes from a DHCP server, from the client itself, or from another source.
One of the techniques for starting DHCP troubleshooting is from the client to ensure that the client receives an IP address from the DHCP server. You can do the “ipconfig / all” command line from the DOS prompt c: \> (if from Windows press the Windows key and R together, continue to type CMD and press Enter). Can be ignored the output of “ipconfig / all” indicates that there is a DHCP enabled = YES. This means that the TCP / IP configuration has been configured to receive an automatic IP address, and if the DHCP server is located then the client should be able to receive the IP address configuration from the DHCP server.
Or you can click on the computer image in the lower right corner and select the Support tab, you can note if a computer can accept the configuration from the DHCP server then the Connection status is “Address Type” = “Assigned by DHCP” (see picture)
In the picture shown that the computer still does not connect, it can be clicked on the “Repair” button. Or if you are one time watching a yellow triangle sign that does not accept the configuration from the DHCP server, then click on the “Repair” sign.
Do you know what the computer is doing with this “Repair” command?
There are 6 stages implemented by Windows when working on the “Repair” process, as follows:
If the client is able to accept an IP address that matches the network and there is no message Warning there is an IP conflict, it can be considered that the client does not have a problem with the IP address.
If the client is submitted an IP address that turns out to have been used by a different client on the same local network, a warning message will occur when the address conflict is present. we can also check the event viewer for this conflict address like the picture above.
If this IP address is from a DHCP server, then this business is a sign of a different DHCP on your network, or re-deployment from the DHCP scope suddenly-2.
To be sure, the dhcploc.exe command (found in Windows Support Tool) can be used to track the presence of foreign DHCP on the network (because there may be idle for DHCP servers). After you have assured the other DHCP server has been turned off, one time first raise the “conflict detection attempt” to update the client with the command “ipconfig / renew” or click “repair”. Or you can also use the command line “shutdown / i” to restart a number of remote computers at once.
If you find the output from “ipconfig / all” indicates the IP address of APIPA (169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254), or from alternate configuration, one time do “ipconfig / renew” or click “repair”. If the results are the same, this business indicates:
How can you make sure there is a DHCP server in the broadcast range? Because IP clients are obtained from the APIPA IP address, you cannot ping the DHCP server because of another network. APIPA in the range 169.254.0.0 – 169.254.254.254 with subnet mask 255.255.0.0. then you must submit a static IP address to the client computer that has this problem with the IP in the same address range as the DHCP server.
If a static IP address has been configured, then you can ping the DHCP server. If you do not understand the DHCP server IP address, then at the command prompt, type “netsh dhcp show”. if the ping results to the DHCP server are successful – it means that the connection to the DHCP server is not a problem. If it can be ascertained that both points 1 and 2 do not have a problem, then suspicion can be due to the configuration of the scope of the DHCP server’s IP address.
If all clients do not find an IP address, make sure that:
To ensure the IP address scope is not problematic, then make sure that the active and non-ending scope is all used by clients. You can do the following:
Sometimes a PC cannot also get an IP address configuration from a DHCP server even though the TCP / IP configuration has been set up to automatically receive an IP address. This often happens on computers that are used up on an internet connection configuration with ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). You must lure it first by submitting a static / manual IP address in the same range as the DHCP server. after that try pinging the DHCP server, if successful, return the configuration to “Obtain IP address automatically” and restart the PC, or rather do “ipconfig / renew” or click “repair”.
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