Category: Computers

Knowing the Differences Between HTTP and HTTPS That are Carried Out and Implemented by Secured Website

This article is specifically devoted to the questions that enter our editor, which is what is the difference between HTTP and HTTPS and which sites need HTTPS? Is the online store included? to answer it I will first state a brief definition of the two protocols.

DEFINITION OF HTTP AND HTTPS

HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol) is a network protocol layer of software that is used for distributed, collaborative information systems, and uses hypermedia. or simply HTTP is the basic rule or protocol that manages the communication between the client and server. client is the user who requests and receives information while the server is the one who submits the information.

HTTPS (Hypertext transfer protocol) is a safe conversion from HTTP, the task is exactly the same but in the exchange of https data using authentication and encrypted communication. HTTPS was developed by Netscape Communications Corp.

There are a number of major differences between HTTP and HTTPS, namely

1. How it works
A very striking difference is the method of work in data expeditions. HTTP does not surrender security in communication between client and server while HTTPS adds more security where clients and servers can communicate safely.

in securing data between client and server, the communication of data delivered will be encrypted. the encryption is in the SSL (Secure) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) encrypted Socket Layer to the point that even if the data is stolen, the data cannot be read because it is encrypted.

2. Port used
another very basic difference is HTTP default port is 80 and HTTPS use is 443

3. Benefits of HTTPS

  • Increase site visitors’ confidence to work on transactions or business with
    You.
  • Securing transactions on the site with encryption classified as credit card data, passwords, etc.
  • Websites that use SSL / HTTPS find SEO rankings that are better than Google compared to sites that are not protected by SSL.
  • Entitled to show SSL Secured Seal on the website.
  • Increase sales or conversion rates on the site as a result of increased consumer confidence.
  • (EV SSL) Increases the prestige of our company with a green bar and company name in the browser address bar
  • (EV SSL from Symantec) gets free malware scanning and free security vulnerability services from Symantec

ANY WEBSITE THAT NEEDS HTTPS? IS THE ONLINE STORE INCLUDED?

When witnessed from its usefulness as long as the site does not deliver urgent data that can harm you if the data is misused then you don’t need it too much. because like the description above https is a safe version of http.

then do online stores need to use https? yes !, because your client credential data is very urgent. and can be misused by irresponsible people if the data is successfully stolen. in addition you can see the benefits of https that I have explained

But in the growth of the internet at this time, you as a site owner must immediately use https. a number of large companies like apple and chrome encourage the use of https. even Google has announced that it will show insecure warnings on sites that are still using HTTP.

Computers

Essential Understanding Between Hackers and Crackers

in the world of network security, the two terms above are not strange and strange business. Even these two collections do not affect the network security situation a little, to the extent that some people mention them as “controllers” of cyber security. However, it turns out that not a few of us can know the meaning, characteristics, and differences of the two terms above.

Actually Hackers and Crackers are two terms that have the most different meaning. But by a lot of people, these two groups that play a very urgent role in the peace of cyberspace are not infrequently misinterpreted to the point that they are the same and harmful. If we try to examine and explore the location of the difference between Hackers and Crackers, it will be seen that they have a very opposite goal in working on the action. Therefore, so that the definition of the two terms is not gradual, let us try to understand the meaning and differences of the two terms.

Hacker

Isit is sophisticated and maybe not too difficult to remember by those of us who just heard it one time. This term is actually a term in English. But compared to the Indonesian term, it turns out this term is better known by the public. In Indonesian terms, hackers are called hackers. Hackers can be interpreted as a person or group of people who are interested in understanding in depth the workings of a system, hardware, or computer network, and can experiment with it to the point that it can obtain better techniques for saving systems and networks.

In general, Hackers have the following characteristics:

  1. Nice to learn the ins and outs of computer system work techniques
  2. Prefer to practice the programming he learned, rather than merely understanding or analyzing it
  3. Want to appreciate the results of hacking other people
  4. Able to do something that should not be possible in a computer system and network
  5. Advanced in programming

Not like the assumptions of many people, true hackers who obey the code of ethics Hackers will seek as far as possible to avoid actions to harm different people for personal gain. However, it is undeniable that not a few of these computer experience who, besides adhering to the code of ethics, sometimes try to use their abilities to do things that are negative and can harm others.

Along with the rapid development of technology, being a hacker is something special and becomes the most extraordinary dream for some people with a guarantee that they will find seats in controlling the system and network security. But it turned out to be a hacker that bahwasannya is not something easy. And after all Hackers are the art of IT people.

In the absence of hackers, the world of technology will feel false by merely following the path that is already there and has been determined, there are absolutely no different constraints and colors. The virtual world will not feel so broad if I and you always feel that there will not be different people who understand what I am and you are doing in front of the monitor screen. Then how will we become hackers if we can only use and follow what is already there? “Therefore, continue to be creative, conquer your world, and find your new world out there, then you will be able to control your world. Never regret if you were never known by the world, because you are the one who should recognize your world to pursue your new world.

Yes, that’s how Hackers are. It is not easy to be a hacker, but should we write that being a hacker is difficult when we have never attempted to do so. In addition to needing sincerity to become a hacker, a true hacker must obey the rules of the game and hacker ethics.

Here are 6 hackers’ ethics written by Steven Levy in his book “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution” and then quoted by Onno W. Purbo:

  1. Computer access – and anything that teaches you how the world works / works – must be carried out indefinitely & totally. Always specialize in field experience
  2. All information must be free, not hidden
  3. Do not trust the authorities, believe in decentralization
  4. A hacker is only judged by his hacking skills, not production criteria such as degree, age, position, or ethnicity
  5. A hacker creates art and beauty on a computer
  6. Computers can process our lives for the better

While the general reflection about the rules of the game Hackers are as follows suitable with what was written by Onno W. Purbo derived from the information Scorpio:

  1. Above all, respect information and freedom of information
  2. Notify System Administrator of any security breach / security hole we see
  3. Don’t pick up unfair profits from hacking
  4. Does not collect and distribute pirated software
  5. Do not collect the risk of ignorance – not infrequently know your own skills
  6. Always willing to openly / freely / freely announce and teach so much information and methods obtained
  7. Never hacked a system to dig for money
  8. Never give up access to someone who will hand over damage
  9. Never accidentally delete and damage files on hacked computers
  10. Respect the hacked machine, and treat it like the machine itself

Some people have grouped hackers into two groups that have different properties, the two collections are:

White Hat Hackers

This group belongs to hackers who are full of ethics and rules of playing hackers. They did not collect the benefits of their actions, and really wanted to protect the system from the holes of peace and damage caused by irresponsible people. And this is the real format of Hackers.

Black Hat Hackers

This group is no different from those who hold positions as Crackers that we will later discuss. They forget the boundaries in the Hacker code of ethics and work on technological innovations regardless of ethics that should be obeyed. Maybe they have the same ability as ethical obedient hackers, but they choose to use their ability to do things that are harmful.

Cracker

The following groups created the image of Hackers to be bad. They are in no way contrary to the Black Hat Hackers that we have peeled before. It can be said that actually Black Hat Hackers are just different names from Cracker. They use their skills to gain access to computers of different people without the system being known, and then struggle to get confidential data belonging to victims. They actually even have the same skills in the field of systems and computer networks may even get more, but they cannot use it in accordance with the determined ethical values.

However, it may be said that they are very helpful and play an urgent role in the growth of information and communication technology. Without them, it’s hard to realize that this virtual world is not safe. They are also experienced in creating viruses, worms, trojans, and are good at installing backdoor. Without them, the world would not need an antivirus, and all hackers might not be too needed to analyze security. However, around there are still peace holes that Cracker can still pass, it is too difficult to eliminate them from the security system and network world.

However, the urge to do cracking is indeed too difficult to eliminate when the tranquility hole and tempting dividends are in sight, just typing in a lot of code and the benefits can be obtained. Therefore, before feeling truly convinced that it will not violate the ethics of hackers, it should never attempt to become a hacker, because the business will only bring you to cracking acts that harm others.

As advised by Onno W. Purbo that network security techniques are no different from a knife – we can use them for things that are ugly and destructive; but it can also be used for good things to the point that it is beneficial to many people. Choose something that is beneficial to the public, our name will be remembered forever, not to mention if the rizki and reward will be calculated through the good deeds you do with the knowledge we have.

Maybe if you want to be a true hacker, then start from everyday life. Have exclusive characteristics that must be possessed by Hackers, and try to realize Hacker ethics in everyday life. Because basically Hackers are people who are anti-authority, then you also have to strive to be more creative in making things that are contrary and can give up benefits, even though there are times when we need to follow what is already there.

But if you don’t feel like becoming a hacker, then you know that hackers aren’t as bad as we imagine. Learn to call those who do not obey Hacker’s ethics in working on tracing into different computer systems as Cracker (Black Hat Hackers). And it should never offend those who penetrate other people’s accounts for their own sake as Hacker (White Hat Hackers). And you should never ignore other people giving wrong understanding of the two terms that we have now understood.

Computers

What is SSL Secure Socket Layer

SSL is short for Secure Socket Layer which is a transport layer protocol that is used in a secure internet connection. If you want a communication connection via the internet with a secure technique, then use an SSL connection.

SSL offers three levels of security, namely:

  • Authentication: Ensures that the message received is from someone who is explicit
  • Confidentiality: Protects messages from a reading effort by recipients who are not eligible throughout their journey.
  • Integrity: Ensuring that the original message, does not feel a change in its journey.

The first two you can get from your ISP, contact your ISP to convince him.

SSL operates between the Application and Transport layers in the OSI model. SSL does not work transparently automatically, because only if the application protocols are explicitly implemented.

SSL uses public-key encryption for the purpose of authentication and symmetric key encryption to encrypt the information sent. For public SSL encryption keys, use the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption algorithm, so it depends on the implementation of the supported infrastructure public key (PKI). Message integrity is ensured by an integrity checking mechanism technique called a message authentication code (MAC).

Authentication process

An SSL session starts when an SSL-enabled client requests a connection with a server with SSL-enabled over TCP port 443, the SSL port. This will initiate an SSL connection between the client and server. All sites that use SSL have a URL with the HTTPS prefix. The server then sends the digital certificate and public key to the client.

The client server then negotiates which level of encryption can be received which is often 40-bit, 56-bit, or 128-bit and above. The client then generates a secret session key which is then encrypted using the public key from the server to send it to the server. The server then decodes the secret session key using the private key. From this point onwards, the secret key cryptography is imposed and then the session key is used to encrypt all data exchanges between the client and the server, leaving a secure private communication.

SSL is certainly not free from problems. All web transactions with SSL will increase processing overhead on the server. Sometimes it is double the process overhead compared to using a secure SSL connection. With the same machine hardware, the processing load level using SSL will be the heaviest compared to without SSL.

Besides that, SSL is difficult to implement in e-commuters that use web server farms and server load balancers. This view of SSL is designed so that the client uses the same IP address around the session.

To overcome this problem, often used exclusive hardware called SSL Accelerators to collect processing fees and cache sessions for different servers to increase performance.

Computers

Introduction of Types of Computer Networks

A network is a collection of desktop or laptop computers and other network devices such as printers that are connected together with the main destination is to communicate with each other and exchange data with each other. The core of computer networks is sharing and allowing your computer to connect to the internet, communicate with each other, and share resources like files and printers.

Network benefits

With the network, you will get a lot of flexibility in your work and provide time together with computers and electronic equipment. With a computer network you can:

  1. You can share one broadband internet connection to the point that everyone on your network can simultaneously surf – surf the internet – so it doesn’t take turns.
  2. You can access your email account while surfing and digging different data
  3. Can share all kinds of files like documents, belonging to music, digital images, and other documents.
  4. You can store your music, image, and file libraries into one place, a storage media, for example NAS (network access storage). That way you can access your music file from anywhere in your home via the network.
  5. Can save your computer against attacks from the internet such as viruses, worms, hackers etc. centrally. See also Pacth management
  6. You can watch one-on-one game games, or online multiplayer games with your family and even with your colleagues all over the world
  7. You can save money by simply buying one printer, storage media, or other equipment to be used simultaneously through the network. See also network sharing printers.

There are so many benefits with the network, you can share storage and access files on other computers through the network that is in your home or commonly called a LAN (local location network) network. It doesn’t matter where you save the file, you can always access it, of course with certain restrictions. And if you use share storage, you don’t need to have to turn on your computer so that other computers can access it. You can also save your files on different computers / storage on the Internet or commonly called WAN (wide location network).

Network Type

There are not a few types of networks according to the size and proximity. And almost everything can be categorized into two basic collections namely local location network (LAN) and wide location network (WAN).

Local Network

A LAN is a network of a set of computers, printers, or other network equipment that is connected to one another in different ways as in a home, office, or school and campus. This allows users who are connected to the network to share files, printers, or storage together. Whether this network consists of only two computers or in the largest scale, the main destination is so that each user can share information quickly and easily. So often a LAN is limited to a distance in one building or location that can communicate with each other quickly.

WAN network

While a WAN is a group of computer networks on a large scale across geographic boundaries, such as between cities or between countries. A simple example of a WAN network is the Internet where all computers in all worlds can be interrelated and communicate (of course with certain limitations). A router is needed to communicate with each other between your personal LAN network and the WAN network using a common network protocol called TCP / IP.

The picture above indicates a concept diagram of a network where a LAN network is connected to a WAN (internet) network using a router.

There are two main types of networks:

  1. Wired or wired network – Communication over a data cable – commonly using an Ethernet base
  2. wireless network – data communication passes through radio waves

It is most common for networks home or office to use a combination of both: cable and wireless.

Why choose a cable network?

Wired (cable) networks have been around for decades. Wired network technology that is now very popular is Ethernet networks. Data cables, commonly referred to as Ethernet network cables (CAT5), are used to connect computers and other network equipment that make up the network. A wired network is very good if you need a large amount of data transfer with the highest speed and reliable, just call it for gaming and entertainment media like HD (high definition) video.

The advantages of a wired network are the following:

  1. Actual cheap costs
  2. Offer the highest performance
  3. High speed – the standard speed of Ethernet cable is 100 Mbps
  4. Higher speed – Gigabit Ethernet cable up to 1000 Mbps

Why use wireless networks?

Wireless networks do not use cables to connect to each other. however they will use radio waves like your cellular telephone. The main advantage of wireless networking is that it is mobile (mobile) and free from a cable or fixed connection limitation. The advantages of wireless networks are the following:

  1. The nature is mobile and free – you can play from anywhere in the wireless network signal coverage
  2. Not limited to cable connections or fixed connections.
  3. Fast installation and not difficult, do not need to drill the wall to penetrate it for network cable needs
  4. No need to purchase a network data cable to the point that it saves times and is not complicated
  5. Easy to develop

With wireless networks you can use your computer anywhere in your home or office, even in the park or in your gazebo. You can check email and browsing or online or even you can print wirelessly from other rooms. we don’t need to drill holes to install Ethernet network cables to break down walls. You can connect to a wireless network. Outside the house you can connect with public hotspot networks such as cafes, airports, hotels, campuses etc. This is very suitable for those who often travel.

3G / 4G network

Even now there is a widespread cellular network (3G / 4G network) that can be accessed through certain cellular phones, and you can also share one 3G connection account with a number of people using a 3G modem and 3G router, call it DIR-450/451 from D-Link or Cradlepoint CTR-500.

The heart of a home network is a router. Even though there are two types of routers that encapsulate wired and wireless, a wireless router can do everything like what can be done on a wired router, and give up more flexibility and even the same price. Call it the E-Series wireless router from Linksys, or call it Netgear WNDR37AV for gaming and video.

Almost all wireless routers are equipped with at least 4 Ethernet ports, both Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet. With a laptop you can roaming all over your house without wires, or the PC is located next to the router can use wired connections for high reliable speeds. For convenience and wireless networking facilities is the answer.

Wireless Performance

The maximum performance of a wireless is obtained from the IEEE 802.11 standard specification. actual performance can vary, including lower wireless network capacity, data rate throughput, coverage and range. Performance can depend on not a few factors, situations and variables, classified as distance from the access point (base station), network traffic volume, construction and building materials, operating system used, combined or used wireless products, interference and other situations.

Standard Wifi

Here are some types of 802.11 wireless standards

Wireless-A (802.11a)

The 802.11a wireless standard operates at a frequency of 5 GHz which is not quite booming compared to a 2.4 GHz freq where telephone and microwave can cause interference. Even though the speed is up to 54 Mbps, the range is only 25 meters. Wireless A is not compatible with wireless B / G and N because it operates on a different frequency.

Wireless-G (802.11g)

Almost the same as wireless B, but the speed can be up to 5 times up to 54 Mbps. You can mix wireless B and G, but you will lose fast performance from wireless G.

Wireless-N (802.11n)

Wireless 802.11n is the latest and very fast wireless generation of up to 300 Mbps and even up to 450 Mbps (for example in TEW-691GR from Trendnet). It is appointed with Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO. Wireless N is very suitable for applications that are hungry for bandwidth like streaming HD video, voice and music.

Wireless AC (802.11ac)

Wireless AC is the fifth generation of WiFi technology that can penetrate speeds in theory to 1300Mbps at 5GHz bands. 802.11ac is the latest wifi technology that has begun to be adopted for wireless routers, wireless adapters or wireless bridges with aggregate speeds of up to 1750Mbps. Call it Netgear with R6300 wireless ac router, Linksys with EA6500 ac router and not a few more.

Dual band

Dual-band routers work on both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequencies. Some wireless routers working between bands only or a number also work together in both bands. With dual-band, it will minimize interference and leave more bandwidth for software such as video streaming.

Building networks

Here are the requirements that you need to build an internet network at home or in an office.

Router

The router is the heart of your home network and it is a device that forwards all traffic to and from the internet and the opposite in your network. With the router you can also share an internet connection from your ISP to a number of computers on the network. Routers are also useful as a security layer from the threat of internet security.

High speed internet service connection (Cable or ADSL)
You can buy a high speed internet service from your ISP (internet service provider) for example from Telkom Speedy service. we can also create an Internet network using Cellular services. Of course using a router that is contradictory, say MEBR3500 from Netgear or MBR1200 from Cradlepoint. Common high-speed internet services are referred to as broadband internet to separate with dial-up.

Modem

Modems are useful for connecting broadband internet services to your computer so you can surf the internet and access your email. Depending on your broadband Internet service, either Cable or ADSL, you must adjust the modem. often the ISP spends a modem when you sign an internet service agreement at your home. A gateway router is an integrated device that includes the modem and router if DGND3300 from Netgear.

Network Adapter

Network adapters allow your computer to be connected to a network. if your computer already has an adapter in it you don’t need to buy it again. There are not a few types of adapters depending on the computer you are using.

For desktop computers:

  1. You can use a PCI adapter that can be inserted in your computer’s PCI slot by opening the casing of course.
  2. Or you can use a USB adapter with the technique of inserting it into a USB port on your computer without having to open the computer case to the point that it is more practical.

For Laptops you can use:

  1. PC Card (PCMCIA) which is the adapter for your credit card, tuck in your laptop slot.
  2. ExpressCard, an exclusive laptop that has an ExpressCard slot
  3. USB adapter, the most practical and simple.

To find maximum performance, you must compare the adapters and routers that you use. For example, the wireless router that you use is from the dual-band 802.11n standard (for example Linksys WRT610N or DIR-855 D-Link), then you also have to use an adapter with the same wireless standard that is a dual-band wireless N call it WUSB600N from Linksys or TEW-644 USB dual-band adapter.

Computers